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Human Clinical Trial Combining Nattokinase and French Maritime Pine Bark Extract

Scientists set out to test a formulation combining nattokinase and French maritime pine bark extract in a randomized, placebo-controlled human trial. All 204 passengers on a New York-to-London flight were instructed in deep vein thrombosis-prevention techniques: isometric exercises, standing and moving for five to ten minutes, and keeping hydrated. Passengers were randomly assigned to receive either capsules of placebo or capsules of the proprietary blend of nattokinase and French maritime pine bark extract. All subjects took the blend two hours pre-departure and again six hours later. Ultrasound scans were done before and after the flight to detect clots.

Passengers taking the supplement had zero deep vein thrombosis cases. However, five of the control passengers developed a deep vein thrombosis, and two others developed superficial clots, for a total of seven events—a 5.4% DVT rate among controls, compared to a 0.0% rate among the test subjects.6 The scientists also measured leg swelling, which was equal between the two groups preflight. Edema increased by 12% in the controls. But edema decreased by 15% in the supplemented passengers.6

These findings confirm that this novel dual-extract formula helps prevent deep vein thrombosis in individuals who spend long periods sitting and reduces the risk of sudden death from a resultant pulmonary embolism. No adverse side effects were reported.

Journal of Translational Medicine 2009, 7:106. Mikirova NA, Jackson JA, Hunninghake R, Kenyon J, Chan KWH, Swindlehurst CA, Minev B, Patel A, Murphy MP, Smith L, Alexandrescu DT, Ichim TE, Riordan NH.

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Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pine Bark (Pycnogenol®) in a twelve month study.

Errichi BM1, Belcaro GHosoi MCesarone MRDugall MFeragalli BBavera PHosoi MZulli CCorsi MLedda ALuzzi RRicci A.

 

Author information

Irvine3 Labs, Department of Biomedical Sciences Chieti - Pescara University, Pescara, Italy.

ABSTRACT

AIM:

Post-thrombotic syndrome is a common complication following deep vein thrombosis. The aim of this twelve month registry study was to compare the efficacy of compression stockings and per oral administration of Pycnogenol® standardized pine bark extract on the severity and incidence of post thrombotic syndrome signs and symptoms.

METHODS:

One hundred fifty-six patients with a single, major episode of proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were assigned to one of three groups receiving treatment with either compression stockings (group 1), Pycnogenol® (group 2) or the combination of both (group 3) over an investigational period of one year. The study evaluated treatment on edema using a scoring system, the ankle circumference, and the limb volume as ratio to the healthy contralateral limb.

RESULTS:

Two new incidents of DVT occurred in the group of 55 patients wearing compression stockings between the third and sixth months, whereas no DVT cases occurred in the two other groups which took Pycnogenol®. The edema symptom score was gradually decreased in all three groups during the one year treatment period. Pycnogenol® was significantly more effective from six months onwards than compression stockings for relieving edema symptoms (P<0.05). Symptoms were more effectively reduced with the combination of Pycnogenol® and compression stockings than with the individual regimen alone (P<0.05). Limb volume and ankle circumference were likewise more effectively reduced with Pycnogenol® plus stockings than with compression stockings alone after six months. Ambulatory venous pressure progressively decreased in all three groups after twelve months treatment as compared to baseline. Compression stockings and Pycnogenol® were of comparable efficacy, there were no significant differences of ambulatory venous pressure between groups following twelve months treatment. Laser Doppler flowmetry at the dorsum of feet showed improved micro-circulation which was further demonstrated by increased pO2 and decreased pCO2. Importantly, none of the patients developed ulcerations during the observational period.

CONCLUSION:

This study suggests that Pycnogenol® may have significant long-term protective efficacy for individuals following a thrombotic event. Moreover, Pycnogenol® appears to be at least as effective for post-thrombosis management as compression stockings, while the combination of both is superior. An important aspect is the patient compliance which was found to be much better in the Pycnogenol® group with two drop-outs due to non-medical reasons, whereas in the compression stockings group eighteen patients were lost to follow-up because wearing stockings at higher temperatures is bothersome.

PMID:

 

22108473

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles

Abstract

 

Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

Yuko Kurosawa,1 Shinsuke Nirengi,1 Toshiyuki Homma,1 Kazuki Esaki,2 Mitsuhiro Ohta,3 Joseph F. Clark,4 andTakafumi Hamaokaa,1

 

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Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):21-7.

 

Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pycnogenol® in a twelve month study.

 

Abstract

AIM:

Post-thrombotic syndrome is a common complication following deep vein thrombosis. The aim of this twelve month registry study was to compare the efficacy of compression stockings and per oral administration of Pycnogenol® standardized pine bark extract on the severity and incidence of post thrombotic syndrome signs and symptoms.

 

METHODS:

One hundred fifty-six patients with a single, major episode of proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were assigned to one of three groups receiving treatment with either compression stockings (group 1), Pycnogenol® (group 2) or the combination of both (group 3) over an investigational period of one year. The study evaluated treatment on edema using a scoring system, the ankle circumference, and the limb volume as ratio to the healthy contralateral limb.

 

RESULTS:

Two new incidents of DVT occurred in the group of 55 patients wearing compression stockings between the third and sixth months, whereas no DVT cases occurred in the two other groups which took Pycnogenol®. The edema symptom score was gradually decreased in all three groups during the one year treatment period. Pycnogenol® was significantly more effective from six months onwards than compression stockings for relieving edema symptoms (P<0.05). Symptoms were more effectively reduced with the combination of Pycnogenol® and compression stockings than with the individual regimen alone (P<0.05). Limb volume and ankle circumference were likewise more effectively reduced with Pycnogenol® plus stockings than with compression stockings alone after six months. Ambulatory venous pressure progressively decreased in all three groups after twelve months treatment as compared to baseline. Compression stockings and Pycnogenol® were of comparable efficacy, there were no significant differences of ambulatory venous pressure between groups following twelve months treatment. Laser Doppler flowmetry at the dorsum of feet showed improved micro-circulation which was further demonstrated by increased pO2 and decreased pCO2. Importantly, none of the patients developed ulcerations during the observational period.

 

CONCLUSION:

This study suggests that Pycnogenol® may have significant long-term protective efficacy for individuals following a thrombotic event. Moreover, Pycnogenol® appears to be at least as effective for post-thrombosis management as compression stockings, while the combination of both is superior. An important aspect is the patient compliance which was found to be much better in the Pycnogenol® group with two drop-outs due to non-medical reasons, whereas in the compression stockings group eighteen patients were lost to follow-up because wearing stockings at higher temperatures is bothersome.

PMID:

AUTHORS: Errichi BM1, Belcaro GHosoi MCesarone MRDugall MFeragalli BBavera PHosoi MZulli CCorsi MLedda ALuzzi RRicci A.

 

22108473

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

_____________________________________

A Clinical Comparison of Pycnogenol, Antistax, and Stocking in Chronic Venous Insufficiency

 

Abstract

This 8-week registry study was a comparative evaluation of Pycnogenol (French Maritime Pine Bark extract; Horphag Research, Geneva) and Antistax (grape leaf extract [GLE, Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany]) in controlling symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). “Standard management” for CVI is compression; a group of comparable subjects was monitored to evaluate the effects of stockings. The registry included 183 patients (166 completing). Supplementation with Antistax (two tablets of 360 mg/d) or Pycnogenol (100 mg/d) was used. The groups were comparable for age, symptoms, venous incompetence, and microcirculation (with increased capillary filtration and skin flux) at inclusion. At 8 weeks, the rate of swelling (p < 0.05) and skin flux decreased toward normal values; changes were more important with Pycnogenol (p < 0.05). Transcutaneous Po 2 was increased more with Pycnogenol (p < 0.05). Ankle circumference was decreased more (p < 0.05) with Pycnogenol. An analog scale quantified symptoms. At 8 weeks, pain and edema were decreased with Pycnogenol and elastic compression (p < 0.05) with prevalence for Pycnogenol (p < 0.05). Edema with Pycnogenol was decreased by 40%. Induration was reduced only in the Pycnogenol group (p < 0.05) with minimal variations in the other groups. Tolerability and compliance were optimal. Elastic compression was correctly used by 80% of the patients indicating that it may be more difficult to use, particularly in warmer days. Costs for Pycnogenol were lower (96; 3.3 Euros) in comparison with the other groups (132;1.4 Euros for GLE and 149; 2.2 Euros for compression).

Conclusion

This registry indicates that supplementation with Pycnogenol appears to be effective and competitively better in comparison with GLE and even with elastic compression.

A more prolonged evaluation is suggested to evaluate cost-efficacy of these types of products in the management of CVI.

 
 

PREVENTION OF EDEMA IN LONG FLIGHTS WITH PINE BARK (PYCNOGENOL). 


ABSTRACT


The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevention of edema during long-haul flights with an oral, anti-edema and antithrombotic agent (Pycnogenol, Horphag, Research Management SA, Geneva, Switzerland) in asymptomatic subjects. The assessment of edema was performed by evaluating an analogue scale, the rate of ankle swelling by strain-gauge derived rate of ankle swelling (RAS), and by assessing the ankle circumference variation. The study included 211 subjects; 169 completed the study (88 in the control group and 81 in the Pycnogenol group). There were no important differences between the two groups (comparable for age, gender, weight, body mass index, and pattern distribution). The edema score, the RAS, and the circumference at inclusion were also comparable. After the flight in those treated with Pycnogenol, the edema score was increased only by 17.9% (vs. an increase of 58.3% in the control group) (p<0.05). The RAS, evaluated in 22 subjects in the Pycnogenol group (age 44.5; SD 8) and in 23 in the control group (age 45; SD 9) was increased on average by 91% in the control group and 36% in the Pycnogenol group (p<0.05). The variation on circumference at the ankle was 6% in the Pycnogenol group (11% in the control group; p<0.05). These results indicate a positive effect of Pycnogenol on edema during long flights when considering subjective and objective data. No unwanted effects were observed.

 

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2005 Jul;11(3):289-94.
Cesarone MR1, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, Pellegrini L, Ippolito E, Scoccianti M, Ricci A, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Fano F, Acerbi G, Vinciguerra MG, Bavera P, Di Renzo A, Errichi BM, Mucci F.

Author information
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Irvine2 Vascular Lab, G D'Annunzio University and San Valentino Vascular Screening Project (Pe), Faculty of Motory Sciences, L'Aquila University, Italy.

PMID: 16015414
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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JET-LAG: PREVENTION WITH PINE BARK (PYCNOGENOL). 


ABSTRACT


This study was conducted with the aim of showing the effects of Pycnogenol on controlling jet-lag symptoms. Oral Pycnogenol, 50 mg tablets 3 times/die, for 7 days starting 2 days prior to the flight was used. The study was divided into two separate parts. In study 1 the most common complaints of patients with jet-lag were evaluated with a rating scale consisting in of a scoring system. In study 2 a brain CT scan was performed after the flight in order to assess minimal brain edema (MBE) in association with typical signs and symptoms, observed in previous published flight studies. Study one included 38 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 30 controls. The symptomatic jet-lag related total score was significantly lower (indicating a lower level of jet-lag) in the Pycnogenol group. The average duration of any jet lag symptom following the flight was significantly reduced from 39.3 (SD=0.8) hours in controls to an average of 18.2 (SD=3.3) hours in the Pycnogenol group (P<0.05). Study 2 included 34 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 31 controls. The main observation was the brain CT scan performed within 28 hours after the end of the flight. The difference between the Pycnogenol and the control groups was statistically significant (P<0.05) for all items assessed including the cerebral edema score obtained by CT scan. The short-term memory was significantly altered in the control group and associated to edema and swelling of the lower limbs. The score (and the level of edema) was comparatively higher in a subgroup of hypertensive subjects in the control group. Minor alterations of cardiac function were observed in association with de-stabilisation of blood pressure. Fatigue was also significantly higher in the control group in comparison with the Pycnogenol group. A number of spontaneously reported symptoms was also scored and there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between the Pycnogenol and control groups. In conclusion, Pycnogenol was useful to control jet-lag and minimal brain edema.

 

Minerva Cardioangiol. 2008 Oct;56 (5 Suppl):3-9.

Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients.Belcaro G1, Cesarone MR, Steigerwalt RJ, Di Renzo A, Grossi MG, Ricci A, Stuard S, Ledda A, Dugall M, Cornelli U, Cacchio M.

Author information: 1Irvine2 Vascular Labs & Microcirculation Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences G. D'Annunzio University, Pescara & San Valentino Vascular Screening Project, Italy.

PMID: 19597404
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

 


 

 

Effect of Air Travel on Exercise-Induced Coagulatory and Fibrinolytic Activation in Marathon Runners

Abstract

Objective: Air travel and exercise change hemostatic parameters. This study investigated the effect of air travel on exercise-induced coagulation and fibrinolysis in endurance athletes.

Design: A prospective longitudinal study.

Setting: The 114th Boston Marathon (April 19, 2010).

Participants: Forty-one adults were divided into travel (T: 23 participants, living >4-hour plane flight from Boston) and nontravel (C: 18 participants, living <2-hour car trip from Boston) groups.

Independent Variables: Age, anthropometrics, vital signs, training mileage, and finishing time were collected.

Main Outcome Measures: Subjects provided venous blood samples the day before (PRE), immediately after (FINISH), and the day following the marathon after returning home (POST). Blood was analyzed for thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), hematocrit (Hct), and the presence of Factor V Leiden R506Q mutation.

Results: Thrombin–antithrombin complex increased more in T subjects in PRE to FINISH samples (5.0 ± 4.0 to 12.9 ± 15.6 μg/L) than in C subjects (4.0 ± 1.2 to 6.1 ± 1.2 μg/L; P = 0.02 for comparison). The t-PA increased in both the T (5.4 ± 2.3 to 25.1 ± 12.2 ng/mL) and C (5.6 ± 2.0 to 27.7 ± 11.3 ng/mL) groups in PRE to FINISH samples, and this response did not differ between groups (P = 0.23 for comparison). Both groups exhibited similar t-PA and TAT values at POST that were not different than PRE (all P > 0.35). Age was related to the FINISH TAT values in T (r2 = 0.19; P = 0.04) but not in C (r2 = 0.03; P = 0.53) subjects.

Conclusions: Results suggest that the combination of air travel and marathon running induces an acute hypercoaguable state; this hemostatic imbalance is exaggerated with increasing age.

Authors: Parker, Beth PhD*; Augeri, Amanda MS*; Capizzi, Jeffrey MS*; Troyanos, Christopher ATC†; Kriz, Peter MD†; D'Hemecourt, Pierre MD†; Thompson, Paul MD*

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: March 2011 - Volume 21 - Issue 2 - pp 126-130

doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31820edfa6

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

 

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A SINGLE-DOSE OF ORAL NATTOKINASE POTENTIATES THROMBOLYSIS AND ANTI-COAGULATION PROFILES.

 

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 11601.

Published online 2015 Jun 25. doi:  10.1038/srep11601

PMCID: PMC4479826

Yuko Kurosawa,1 Shinsuke Nirengi,1 Toshiyuki Homma,1 Kazuki Esaki,2 Mitsuhiro Ohta,3 Joseph F. Clark,4 andTakafumi Hamaokaa,1

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NATTOKINASE DECREASES PLASMA LEVELS OF FIBRINOGEN, FACTOR VII, AND FACTOR VIII IN HUMAN SUBJECTS.

 

Abstract

Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P < .001), and factor VIII (P < .001), suggesting that the plasma levels of the 3 coagulation factors continuously declined during intake; also, the extents of decrease were similar between groups. After 2 months of administration, fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII decreased 9%, 14%, and 17%, respectively, for the Healthy Group; 7%, 13%, and 19%, respectively, for the Cardiovascular Group; and 10%, 7%, and 19%, respectively, for the Dialysis Group, whereas blood lipids were unaffected by nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

 

Nutr Res. 2009 Mar;29(3):190-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.01.009.

Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

Hsia CHShen MCLin JSWen YKHwang KLCham TMYang NC.

PMID:

19358933

DOI:

10.1016/j.nutres.2009.01.009

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with flite tabs: the LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of edema, and superficial and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis with an oral profibrinolytic agent (Flite Tabs, 150 mg pinokinase, Aidan, Tempe, AZ, USA) in long-haul flights (7-8 hours), in high-risk subjects. A group of 300 subjects was included; 76 were excluded for several problems including concomitant treatments; 204 were randomized into 2 groups (active treatment or placebo) to evaluate the effects of prophylaxis with Flite Tabs. An exercise program was used in both groups. The femoral, popliteal, tibial, and superficial veins were scanned with ultrasound before and within 90 minutes after flights. Of the included subjects, 92 of 103 controls and 94 of 101 treated subjects completed the study. Dropouts were due to connection problems. Age, gender, and risk distribution were comparable in the groups. In the treatment group, no DVT was observed. In the control group, 5 subjects (5.4%) had a DVT and there were 2 superficial thromboses (7 events in 92 subjects; 7.6%). At inclusion, edema was comparable in the 2 groups. After flights there was an increase in score in controls (+12%) in comparison with a decrease (-15%) in the Flite Tabs group (the difference in variation was statistically significant). Intention-to-treat analysis for thrombotic events shows 18 failures in controls (11 lost to follow-up + 7 thrombotic events) of 92 subjects (19.6%) in comparison with 7 failures (of 94 subjects, equivalent to 7.4%) in the treatment group (p < 0.05). Events were asymptomatic. In conclusion, Flite Tabs were effective in reducing thrombotic events and in controlling edema in high-risk subjects in long flights.

Authors:

Cesarone MR1, Belcaro GNicolaides ANRicci AGeroulakos GIppolito EBrandolini RVinciguerra GDugall MGriffin MRuffini IAcerbi GCorsi MRiordan NHStuard SBavera PDi Renzo AKenyon JErrichi BM.

PMID:

14565628

DOI:

10.1177/000331970305400502

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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The effect of in vivo resveratrol supplementation in irradiated mice on the induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes

Abstract

 

The aim of the study was to investigate how coadministration of resveratrol (RSV) at different time after the start of irradiation influences the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in reticulocytes of bone marrow and peripheral blood, and if the RSV supplementation after termination of irradiation may influence the recovery process of damaged cells. Coadministration of RSV with 1-day delay after 1 Gy irradiation significantly decreased the levels of MN in bone marrow and in peripheral blood, whereas with 1-week delay, only in bone marrow reticulocytes. Above combined treatment did not improve the process of recovery. RSV supplementation with 1-day delay relatively to 0.5 Gy irradiation, significantly decreased the frequencies of MN, especially after coadministration with 28mg/kg bw of RSV. Coadministration of RSV since eighth day did not influence the frequencies of MN compared to irradiated cells. The recovery process in the presence of RSV proceeded faster. Supplementation of RSV following initiation of irradiation is beneficial in case of irradiation with lower doses. RSV should be supplemented as soon as possible. Supplementation of RSV after termination of irradiation significantly speed up the recovery. Current results confirmed the ability of RSV to mitigate the effect of irradiation.

Authors: Małgorzata M. Dobrzyńska, Aneta Gajowik, Joanna Radzikowska

Mutagenesis (2016) 31 (4): 393-399.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gev084

Published: 16 December 2015

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The multifaceted role of curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment.

Despite significant advances in treatment modalities over the last decade, neither the incidence of the disease nor the mortality due to cancer has altered in the last thirty years. Available anti-cancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy, associated with severe side effects, and are also expensive. Thus identification of pharmacological agents that do not have these disadvantages is required. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcumin longa), is one such agent that has been extensively studied over the last three to four decades for its potential anti-inflammatory and/or anti-cancer effects. Curcumin has been found to suppress initiation, progression, and metastasis of a variety of tumors. These anti-cancer effects are predominantly mediated through its negative regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other oncogenic molecules. It also abrogates proliferation of cancer cells by arresting them at different phases of the cell cycle and/or by inducing their apoptosis. The current review focuses on the diverse molecular targets modulated by curcumin that contribute to its efficacy against various human cancers.

 

Authors: Shanmugam MKRane GKanchi MMArfuso Chinnathambi AZayed MEAlharbi SATan BKKumar APSethi G

PMID: 25665066

DOI: 10.3390/molecules20022728

Molecules. 2015 Feb 5;20(2):2728-69. doi: 10.3390/molecules20022728

[Indexed for MEDLINE] 

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Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments.

Abstract

 

For a number of years, coenzyme Q (CoQ10 in humans) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular fractions and in plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis on which research supporting the clinical use of CoQ10 is founded. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane level, coenzyme Q is recognized as an obligatory co-factor for the function of uncoupling proteins and a modulator of the transition pore. Furthermore, recent data reveal that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism, and transport and some of the effects of exogenously administered CoQ10 may be due to this property. Coenzyme Q is the only lipid soluble antioxidant synthesized endogenously. In its reduced form, CoQH2, ubiquinol, inhibits protein and DNA oxidation but it is the effect on lipid peroxidation that has been most deeply studied. Ubiquinol inhibits the peroxidation of cell membrane lipids and also that of lipoprotein lipids present in the circulation. Dietary supplementation with CoQ10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoproteins to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Moreover, CoQ10 has a direct anti-atherogenic effect, which has been demonstrated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed with a high-fat diet. In this model, supplementation with CoQ10 at pharmacological doses was capable of decreasing the absolute concentration of lipid hydroperoxides in atherosclerotic lesions and of minimizing the size of atherosclerotic lesions in the whole aorta. Whether these protective effects are only due to the antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q remains to be established; recent data point out that CoQ10 could have a direct effect on endothelial function. In patients with stable moderate CHF, oral CoQ10 supplementation was shown to ameliorate cardiac contractility and endothelial dysfunction. Recent data from our laboratory showed a strong correlation between endothelium bound extra cellular SOD (ecSOD) and flow-dependent endothelial-mediated dilation, a functional parameter commonly used as a biomarker of vascular function. The study also highlighted that supplementation with CoQ10 that significantly affects endothelium-bound ecSOD activity. Furthermore, we showed a significant correlation between increase in endothelial bound ecSOD activity and improvement in FMD after CoQ10 supplementation. The effect was more pronounced in patients with low basal values of ecSOD. Finally, we summarize the findings, also from our laboratory, on the implications of CoQ10 in seminal fluid integrity and sperm cell motility.

Mol Biotechnol. 2007 Sep;37(1):31-7.

Authors: Littarru GP1, Tiano L.

PMID: 17914161

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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Anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing effects of the constituents of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.

 

Abstract

In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol inhibited the Ca²⁺-dependent contractions in high K⁺ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

 

 

Authors:

Liao YR1, Leu YL, Chan YY, Kuo PC, Wu TS

PMID: 22836212

DOI:

10.3390/molecules17088928

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

====================================================================

Update on the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its phytochemicals.

Abstract

The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger, is one of the most widely used spice and condiment. It is also an integral part of many traditional medicines and has been extensively used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, Tibb-Unani, Srilankan, Arabic, and African traditional medicines, since antiquity, for many unrelated human ailments including common colds, fever, sore throats, vomiting, motion sickness, gastrointestinal complications, indigestion, constipation, arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, and helminthiasis. The putative active compounds are nonvolatile pungent principles, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerone. These compounds are some of the extensively studied phytochemicals and account for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and gastroprotective activities. A number of preclinical investigations with a wide variety of assay systems and carcinogens have shown that ginger and its compounds possess chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects. A number of mechanisms have been observed to be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger. The cancer preventive activities of ginger are supposed to be mainly due to free radical scavenging, antioxidant pathways, alteration of gene expressions, and induction of apoptosis, all of which contribute towards decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. This review provides concise information from preclinical studies with both cell culture models and relevant animal studies by focusing on the mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action. The conclusion describes directions for future research to establish its activity and utility as a human cancer preventive and therapeutic drug. The above-mentioned mechanisms of ginger seem to be promising for cancer prevention; however, further clinical studies are warranted to assess the efficacy and safety of ginger.

 

Authors: 

Baliga MS1, Haniadka RPereira MMD'Souza JJPallaty PLBhat HPPopuri S.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Jul;51(6):499-523. doi: 10.1080/10408391003698669.

PMID: 21929329​

DOI: 10.1080/10408391003698669

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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Radioprotective effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger): past, present and future.

Abstract

Radiation is an important modality in treating people with cancer especially when surgical intervention is impracticable or might debilitate the patient. However, effective use of ionizing radiation is compromised by the side effects that result from radiation-induced damage to normal tissue. The use of radioprotective compounds, which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to association with protecting the normal tissue, it will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, till date no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has widely been used as both culinary and medicinal agent. Preclinical studies carried out in the last decade has shown that ginger and its phytochemicals dehydrozingerone, zingerone possess radioprotective effects in laboratory animals and in cultured cells in vitro. The hydroalcoholic extract of ginger rhizome when administered either through intraperitoneal or oral route was effective in protecting against gamma radiation-induced sickness and mortality. The phytochemicals dehydrogingerone and zingerone present in ginger are also shown to protect mice against radiation-induced sickness and mortality. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the free radical scavenging, antioxidant affects, anti-inflammatory and anti-clastogenic effects may contribute towards the observed protection. Additionally, studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that zingerone selectively protects the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to the radioprotective properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a radioprotective agent.

Authors: Baliga MS1, Haniadka RPereira MMThilakchand KRRao SArora R.

Food Funct. 2012 Jul;3(7):714-23. doi: 10.1039/c2fo10225k. Epub 2012 May 18.

PMID: 22596078

DOI: 10.1039/c2fo10225k

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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Effects of Dietary Supplements on the Space Radiation-Induced Reduction in Total Antioxidant Status in CBA Mice

 

Abstract

Guan, J., Stewart, J., Ware, J. H., Zhou, Z., Donahue, J. J. and Kennedy, A. R. Effects of Dietary Supplements on the Space Radiation-Induced Reduction in Total Antioxidant Status in CBA Mice. Radiat. Res. 165, 373–378 (2006).

In the present study, the total antioxidant status was used as a biomarker to evaluate oxidative stress induced by proton, HZE-particle and γ radiation in CBA mice. The results demonstrated that the plasma level of TAS was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in CBA mice after exposure to a 50-cGy dose of radiation from HZE particles or a 3-Gy dose of radiation from protons or γ rays. Diet supplementation with Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC), l-selenomethionine (l-SeM), or a combination of N-acetyl cysteine, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), α-lipoic acid, l-SeM and vitamin E succinate could partially or completely prevent the reduction in the plasma level of TAS in CBA mice exposed to proton or HZE-particle radiation. The selected antioxidant combination with or without CoQ10 has a comparable protective effect on the γ-radiation-induced drop in TAS in CBA mice. These results indicate that BBIC, l-SeM and the selected antioxidant combinations may serve as countermeasures for space radiation-induced adverse biological effects.

 

Radiation Research Society

Authors: Jun GuanJelena StewartJeffrey H. WareZhaozong ZhouJeremiah J. Donahue and Ann R. Kennedy

Radiation Research 165(4):373-378. 2006 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR3523.1

Received: August 31, 2005; Accepted: December 5, 2005

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1,800 Studies Later, Scientists Conclude Homeopathy Doesn’t Work

A major Australian study debunks homeopathy—again

Perhaps you remember when scientists debunked homeopathy in 2002. Or 2010. Or 2014. But now a major Australian study analyzing over 1,800 papers has shown that homeopathy, the alternative treatment that relies on super-diluted substances and the principle of “like cures like” is completely ineffective. After assessing more than 1,800 studies on homeopathy, Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council was only able to find 225 that were rigorous enough to analyze. And a systematic review of these studies revealed “no good quality evidence to support the claim that homeopathy is effective in treating health conditions.” The Australian study, which is the first position statement relying on such an extensive review of medical literature, strikes the latest blow at a 200- year-old alternative treatment developed by a German physician with “no interest in detailed pathology, and none in conventional diagnosis and treatment.” The Washington Post reports that the study’s authors are concerned that people who continue to choose homeopathic remedies over proven medicine face real health risks—including the nearly 4 million Americans who use homeopathic “medicines.” The head of the National Health and Medical Research Council told the Guardian that he hopes the findings will lead to changes in Australia’s health insurance and pharmacy systems. But he also said that “there will be a tail of people who won’t respond to this report, and who will say it’s all a conspiracy of the establishment.” News of the Australian study comes on the heels of newly released National Health Interview Survey data showing a “small but significant” increase in the use of homeopathy during 2012. And recently, a Canadian homeopathic college came under fire for taking an anti-vaccination stance and promoting homeopathic “nosodes” as an alternative to vaccines. But will the not-so-new news that homeopathy is ineffective keep consumers from wasting their money on the complementary therapy? If the growing homeopathic industry is any indication, the answer is probably no.

Erin Blakemore is a Boulder, Colorado-based journalist. Her work has appeared in publications like The Washington Post, TIME, mental_floss, Popular Science and JSTOR Daily.